A, by itself, A. In open sight; without artifice, or trick. A common expression in the Western States. To run away, to abscond.
In the first 18 years of the new regime you can clearly distinguish several stages marked by sharp crises. A short outline of the economic history of the Soviet Union in connection with the policy of the government is absolutely necessary both for diagnosis and prognosis.
The first three years after the revolution were a period of overt and cruel civil war.
Economic life was wholly subjected to the needs of the front. Cultural life lurked in corners and was characterized by a bold range of creative thought, above all the personal thought of Lenin, with an extraordinary scarcity of material means.
That was the period of so-called "military communism"which forms a heroic parallel to the "military socialism" of the capitalist countries. The economic problems of the Soviet government in those years came down chiefly to supporting the war industries, and using the scanty resources left from the past for military purposes and to keep the city population alive.
Military communism was, in essence, the systematic regimentation of consumption in a besieged fortress. It is necessary to acknowledge, however, that in its original conception it pursued broader aims.
The Soviet government hoped and strove to develop these methods of regimentation directly into a system of planned economy in distribution as well as production. In other words, from "military communism" it hoped gradually, but without destroying the system, to arrive at genuine communism.
The program of the Bolshevik party adopted in March said: Production continually declined, and not only because of the quenching of the stimulus of personal interest among the producers.
The city demanded grain and raw materials from the rural districts, giving nothing in exchange except varicolored pieces of paper, named, according to ancient memory, money.
And the muzhik buried his stores in the ground. The government sent out armed workers' detachments for grain.
The muzhik cut down his sowings. Industrial production of steel fell from 4. The total harvest of grain decreased from million hundredweight to million in That was a year of terrible hunger.
Foreign trade at the same time plunged from 2. The collapse of the productive forces surpassed anything of the kind that history had ever seen. The country, and the government with it, were at the very edge of the abyss. The utopian hopes of the epoch of military communism came in later for a cruel, and in many respects just, criticism.
The theoretical mistake of the ruling party remains inexplicable, however, only if you leave out of account the fact that all calculations at that time were based on the hope of an early victory of the revolution in the West. It was considered self-evident that the victorious German proletariat would supply Soviet Russia, on credit against future food and raw materials, not only with machines and articles of manufacture, but also with tens of thousands of highly skilled workers, engineers and organizers.
And there is no doubt that if the proletarian revolution had triumphed in Germany -- a thing that was prevented solely and exclusively by the Social Democrats -- the economic development of the Soviet Union as well as of Germany would have advanced with such gigantic strides that the fate of Europe and the world would today have been incomparably more auspicious.
It can be said with certainty, however, that even in that happy event it would still have been necessary to renounce the direct state distribution of products in favor of the methods of commerce. Lenin explained the necessity of restoring the market by the existence in the country of millions of isolated peasant enterprises, unaccustomed to define their economic relations with the outside world except through trade.Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.
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(NY: Bartlett and Welford, ) and adopted his views in all my conclusions. At his suggestion, I have struck out many etymologies taken from standard dictionaries, which it was evident were wholly erroneous.
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