Line guides for writing a4u

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Line guides for writing a4u

More examples Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and results for presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment Tables present lists of numbers or text in columns, each column having a title or label.

Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure.

For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to say habitat type, you would use a table. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure.

Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of other types of figures are included at the end of this section.

Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship. Once you have done your analyses and decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a "story" which leads the reader through the steps needed to logically answer the question s you posed in your Introduction.

The order in which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text.

How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Use sentences that draw the reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in running water than in controls Fig.

DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the four congeners Table 1 show high similarity, differing by at most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary results for male and female heights at Bates College.

Abbreviation of the word "Figure": When referring to a Figure in the text, the word "Figure" is abbreviated as "Fig. Both words are spelled out completely in descriptive legends.

Top of Page How to number Tables and Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently, in the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in revison, you change the presentation sequence of the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the new sequence.

Placement of Figures and Tables within the Paper: In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it e.

It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the flow of text. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on their own pages.

The "Acid Test" for Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible.

line guides for writing a4u

If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major not in your course and ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the "acid test" above, a clear and complete legend sometimes called a caption is essential.

Like the title of the paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about what the Table or Figure tells the reader: Do not simply restate the axis labels with a "versus" written in between. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey.

In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples or an appropriate example from a published paper as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done.

line guides for writing a4u

For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure.Read&Write is a big confidence booster for anyone who needs a little support with their reading and writing, at school or in the workplace.

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Adding direct quotes to any piece of writing is very important as it helps in expanding upon the idea you have in mind .

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Three different width line guides for placing under plain paper. Works best for paper around 80gsm (standard photocopier). Some 'display' type papers are a little thicker and pupils may struggle to 4/4(6).

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Quotation Guides: Writing Guide - A Research Guide for Students