ShareCompartir Autism spectrum disorder ASD is a developmental disability that is caused by differences in how the brain functions. People with ASD may communicate, interact, behave, and learn in different ways. CDC is committed to providing essential data on ASD, searching for causes of and factors that increase the risk for ASD, and developing resources that help identify children with ASD as early as possible.
The pathology paradigm is simply an outgrowth of cultural ableism and bigotry.
Like racism, misogyny, and homophobia, the pathology paradigm is just plain wrong. A good educator should seek to expose students to good information while steering them away from ignorance and bigotry. I certainly hope not. So a good course on autism should actively and uncompromisingly promote the neurodiversity paradigm, just as a good African-American Studies course is actively and uncompromisingly anti-racist.
There are enough out-of-the-closet autistics in academia these days that any college should be able to find one to teach a course on autism.
And given how heavily most hiring processes discriminate against autistics, the autistic academics could certainly use the work. The tame autistics all have certain traits in common: Temple Grandin and John Elder Robison are probably the best-known of these tame autistics at the time that I write this, but there are many others — in fact, there are a couple of publishing companies, specializing in autism-related books based in the pathology paradigm, that actively seek the work of tame autistic authors.
Autistic though they may be, none of these tame autistics would be equipped to create or teach a curriculum that poses real critical challenges to the pathology paradigm and to the bigotry of the dominant cultural narratives around autism.
Autistic Voices Must Be Central The writings and perspectives of actual autistic persons must be central, not peripheral, to the curriculum. A course in which most of the readings by autistics are by tame autistics is a course that reinforces dominant cultural narratives rather than challenging them.
Autistic voices and narratives that pose critical challenges to this dominant discourse, and to the host of beliefs and practices around autism that are rooted in the pathology paradigm, are systematically marginalized in this literature — excluded, silenced, disingenuously misinterpreted, or condescendingly dismissed.
To find the autistic voices that challenge the assumptions and practices of the dominant paradigm through various combinations of personal testimony and direct critique, one must therefore look outside the well-guarded walls of mainstream academic literature.
Until quite recently, nearly all of the most important work by non-tame autistic authors could only be found on the internet, most often on the blogs created by the authors themselves. This is still largely the case, although some of these authors are finally beginning to gain footholds on the fringes of academic publishing — primarily in journals devoted to Disability Studies, or through the efforts of small independent publishing houses like Autonomous Press that specifically seek to amplify marginalized voices.
Given this state of affairs, the list of assigned readings for a course on autism based in the neurodiversity paradigm rather than the pathology paradigm must necessarily consist to a large degree of materials drawn from autistic-owned blogs and other sources outside of the realm of conventional academic literature.
The instructor ought to make a point of explaining all of this on the first day of class, and perhaps also articulate it in the syllabus. The Instructor Must Model the Accommodation of Neurodivergence Most academic settings reflect the ableist and neuronormative values of the dominant culture.
Students are expected to conform to the dominant neuronormative conventions of learning and participation, and students whose learning and access needs conflict with those conventions are heavily discriminated against in most educational institutions.
The instructor must openly and explicitly declare the class a zone of freedom from this sort of discrimination and compulsory neuronormativity, and must clearly and consistently demonstrate the creative accommodation of neurodivergence and individual access needs in her conduct of the class.
One cannot convincingly challenge a paradigm of compulsory neuronormativity while remaining complicit in the institutionalized enforcement of that same neuronormativity. This is merely compliance with the law although many instructors and many institutions resist even doing that much.
Thus, any instructor who provides accommodations only when required by the Disability Services department is also implicitly reinforcing and condoning the pathology paradigm.Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, he notes, relying on school and medical records is not as accurate as assessing a child.
- In addition to tracking 8- and 4-year-olds to estimate autism prevalence, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention through its Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network is beginning to monitor year-olds who were previously tracked as 8-year-olds.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that is caused by differences in how the brain functions.
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People with ASD may communicate, interact, behave, and learn in different ways. Recent estimates from CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network found that about 1 in 68 children have been identified with ASD in communities across the United States.
Autism in CaliforniaThere's autism in California too? Yep.
And if you haven't discovered IHSS or SSIit's time to check that out. California has an early intervention program for . Autism is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting speech and language development (e.g.
delay or total lack of speech development), social engagement (e.g. failure to use eye contact, lack of peer relationship development) and behaviors (e.g. irritable, tantrums). Getting to the cause -- or, more accurately, causes -- of autism will be more difficult than unraveling the causes of cancer, says Gary Goldstein, MD, president and CEO of Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, a facility that helps children with autism and other developmental disorders.